Press reviews


2024-03-01

Impact of influenza vaccination in the USA

Public health and social medicine

Mortality from seasonal influenza remained high in the USA, despite high uptake of vaccination campaigns. In this study, researchers evaluated the effectiveness of the vaccination program on pneumonia and influenza-related mortality. Data were analyzed for the 2013-2014 to 2018-2019 winter seasons for adults and children over 6 months of age. The total number of influenza-related deaths over the period considered was 480,111. The cumulative vaccination rate was 46.7% for the population as a whole, and 64.8% for the over-65s. Vaccination was associated with statistically significant protection against the risk of pneumonia and influenza-related mortality.

Source(s) :
Anthony T Newall et al. The association between influenza vaccination uptake and influenza and pneumonia-associated deaths in the United States. Vaccine. 2024 Feb 24:S0264-410X(24)00113-0. ;

Volume overload is associated with high mortality in peritoneal dialysis patients. This overload is incompletely corrected by diuretics, fluid restriction or icodextrin-based solutions. Alternative strategies are therefore required. In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, investigators are evaluating the value of SGLT-2 inhibitors for reducing volume overload in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. At least 36 randomized patients must be recruited. The primary endpoint is the change in daily ultrafiltration volume from baseline to week 8. Key secondary endpoints include changes in biomarkers, residual renal function and anemia-related parameters.

Source(s) :
Yohei Doi et al. Effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors on ultrafiltration in patients with peritoneal dialysis: a protocol for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial (EMPOWERED). Clin Exp Nephrol. 2024 Feb 25. ;

2024-03-01

Detection of high-risk HPV viruses

Infectiology

The detection of high-risk HPV viruses is crucial for the prevention and early detection of cervical cancer. In this study, researchers evaluated the value of a sample genotyping system compared with the traditional real-time PCR method. They randomly selected 365 samples (representing 7,259 women) after running them through real-time PCR, which they then analyzed using the fully automated GenPlex® system. This system identifies 24 HPV virus types using a combination of PCR and microarray-based reverse hybridization. From the real-time PCR, 76 were negative for high-risk HPV, and 289 were positive. The GenPlex® system identified a larger number of positive cases, 73 with a type of HPV not covered by real-time PCR, and 20 potentially due to a DNA concentration undetectable by PCR.

Source(s) :
: Lijuan Zhang et al. Analytical evaluation of the automated genotyping system (GenPlex) compared to a traditional real-time PCR assay for the detection of high-risk human papillomaviruses. J Med Virol. 2024 Mar;96(3):e29496. ;

2024-03-01

Pericentral regeneration after liver injury

Gastroenterology and Hepatology

Liver injuries are often zoned, but the regenerative mechanisms acting at molecular and cellular level in these injuries are not clearly understood. Here, the researchers studied liver regeneration after acute pericentral injury. They found that pericentral regeneration was initially compensated for by expansion of the remaining pericentral hepatocytes, followed by expansion of the periportal hepatocytes. The researchers then demonstrated that up-regulation of the expression of the mTOR/4E-BP1 axis and lactate dehydrogenase A in hepatocytes contributed to pericentral regeneration. In contrast, activation of TGF-β1 signaling in the injured area mediated fibrotic responses and inhibited hepatocyte proliferation.

Source(s) :
Shuyong Wang et al. Region-specific cellular and molecular basis of liver regeneration after acute pericentral injury. Cell Stem Cell. 2024 Feb 21:S1934-5909(24)00043-2. ;

Ovarian cancer is a common cancer of the female reproductive system, for which effective targeted therapies remain insufficient. In this study, researchers used clinical models of ovarian cancer to assess the therapeutic efficacy of RC48, a HER2-targeted antibody-drug conjugate. It was used alone or in combination with the anti-VEGFR drug cediranib maleate in the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer. Results showed that RC48 alone effectively inhibited the growth of HER2+ tumor cells in the clinical models used. When RC48 was combined with cediranib maleate, the researchers observed synergistic tumor inhibition.

Source(s) :
Weisong Li et al. Combined inhibition of HER2 and VEGFR synergistically improves therapeutic efficacy via PI3K-AKT pathway in advanced ovarian cancer. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2024 Feb 26;43(1):56. ;

Anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy are recommended after percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with atrial fibrillation. Current recommendations call for antiplatelet therapy to be discontinued 1 year after implantation of a drug-eluting stent (DES), due to excessive bleeding risk. But randomized clinical trials are lacking to validate this recommendation. The ADAPT AF-DES clinical trial is a multicenter, prospective, open-label, randomized, non-inferiority trial involving 960 patients with atrial fibrillation. Patients included in the study are randomized to receive either a non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant monotherapy, or combination therapy with clopidogrel.

Source(s) :
Sang-Hyup Lee et al. Optimal antithrombotic strategy in patients with atrial fibrillation beyond 1 year after drug-eluting stent implantation: Design and rationale of the randomized ADAPT AF-DES trial. Am Heart J. 2024 Feb 22:S0002-8703(24)00041-3. ;

The 17D yellow fever vaccine is highly effective, but it is frequently injected into people with pre-existing cross-immunity, which can affect its immunogenicity. In this study, researchers assessed the impact of pre-existing immunity induced by tick-borne encephalitis vaccine on yellow fever vaccination. A total of 250 individuals were included in the study, followed up 1 month after vaccination, and 22 individuals followed up for 1 year. Previous tick-borne encephalitis vaccination did not appear to affect the early neutralizing response induced by yellow fever vaccination. After vaccination, pre-vaccinated individuals developed large quantities of cross-reactive antibodies.

Source(s) :
Antonio Santos-Peral et al. Prior flavivirus immunity skews the yellow fever vaccine response to cross-reactive antibodies with potential to enhance dengue virus infection. Nat Commun. 2024 Feb 24;15(1):1696. ;

2024-02-29

Antihypertensive treatment and breast cancer

Pharmacology and toxicology

Available data on the links between antihypertensive drugs and breast cancer risk remain inconsistent. In this study, researchers used two-sample Mendelian randomization analyses to assess relationships between genetically predicted traits of high blood pressure and breast cancer risk. Overall breast cancer risk was associated with the expression of only one gene considered, the SLC12A2 gene. Decreased expression of this gene was associated with a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure, but with an increased risk of breast cancer.

Source(s) :
Guoqiao Zheng et al. Antihypertensive drug targets and breast cancer risk: a two-sample Mendelian randomization study. Eur J Epidemiol. 2024 Feb 24. ;

In bladder carcinoma, there is an imbalance between IL-1 and the IL-1 receptor antagonist. This signaling pathway is therefore of interest for the development of new therapeutic strategies. In this study, we evaluated the expression profiles and prognostic role of IL-1-beta and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1 RA) in invasive bladder carcinoma. The study was conducted on two independent cohorts of 92 and 102 patients who had undergone radical cystectomy. IL-1β and IL-1RA were significantly overexpressed in invasive versus benign urothelium in both cohorts. IL-1-beta protein expression was of prognostic significance in bladder cancer.

Source(s) :
Marko Vukovic et al. Interleukin-1β/Interleukin (IL)-1-Receptor-Antagonist (IL1-RA) Axis in Invasive Bladder Cancer-An Exploratory Analysis of Clinical and Tumor Biological Significance. Int J Mol Sci. 2024 Feb 19;25(4):2447. ;

2024-02-29

Severity of multi-ligament knee injuries

Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

The incidence of neurovascular lesions is highest in multi-ligament knee injuries with documented dislocation. In this multicenter retrospective cohort study, researchers determined the impact of documented dislocation on functional recovery. A total of 42 patients, 25 men and 17 women, were included in the study between 2012 and 2021. Pain assessed by VAS was not significantly different between patients. The incidence of neurovascular lesions was higher in patients with documented knee dislocation. Documentation of dislocation appeared to have a decisive impact on management and functional recovery.


Source(s) :
Andrew J Hughes et al. Clinical and Functional Outcomes of Documented Knee Dislocation Versus Multiligamentous Knee Injury: A Comparison of KD3 Injuries at Mean 6.5 Years Follow-up. Am J Sports Med. 2024 Feb 24:3635465241231032. ;

2024-02-28

Oral anticoagulants or warfarin in stroke prevention

Pharmacology and toxicology

In this observational cohort study conducted in Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Finland, 26,883 patients treated with reduced-dose oral anticoagulants (dagibatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban) and 108,014 patients treated with warfarin were followed. The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy and safety of reduced-dose oral anticoagulants in stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation. Similar or lower incidences of stroke and embolism were observed in patients receiving reduced-dose oral anticoagulants, compared with warfarin. Intracranial hemorrhage rates were generally low, ranging from 0.16 to 1.85 per 100 person-years.

Source(s) :
: Flemming Skjøth et al. Comparative safety and effectiveness of reduced doses of direct acting oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. Am J Med. 2024 Feb 20:S0002-9343(24)00098-6. ;

Autoantibodies to contactin-associated protein 2 (anti-CASPR2) cause pain and limbic autoimmune encephalitis. In this study, German researchers analyzed clinical pain data from a large cohort of patients investigating autoimmune encephalitis. Of the 102 patients in the cohort, 36% described frequent pain, 63.6% severe pain and 55.6% pain as their major symptom. Pain phenotypes varied from patient to patient, but the analyses identified two major phenotypes: symmetrical distal burning pain and generalized pain with myalgia and cramps. Certain pre-existing risk factors for chronic pain (diabetes mellitus, peripheral neuropathy, chronic back pain) reinforced the pain picture.

Source(s) :
Patrik Greguletz et al. Different pain phenotypes are associated with anti-Caspr2 autoantibodies. J Neurol. 2024 Feb 22. ;

The pathological mechanisms of periodontitis seem to involve environmental exposures. In this study, researchers explored the case of exposure to ethylene oxide. A total of 1,065 participants, aged over 30, were recruited from the 2013-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Participants with the highest levels of ethylene oxide adducts with hemoglobin had an increased risk of periodontitis, after adjusting for all covariates. The level of ethylene oxide adducts with hemoglobin was significantly associated with four inflammatory mediators, suggesting an involvement of inflammation in the links between ethylene oxide and periodontitis.

Source(s) :
: Yixuan Liu et al. Association between blood ethylene oxide levels and periodontitis risk: a population-based study. Front Public Health. 2024 Feb 7:12:1338319. ;

2024-02-28

Maternal smoking and COPD in children

pneumonology

Maternal smoking during pregnancy is a known risk factor for childhood COPD, but the mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this case-control study, researchers examined whether the increased risk of COPD associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy could be attributed to tobacco dependence. In total, the study involved 5,943 participants, 2,991 with COPD and 2,952 controls. Smoking rates were higher in the COPD group. The prevalence of tobacco dependence was also higher in this group. Associations were found between tobacco dependence, COPD and maternal smoking during pregnancy.

Source(s) :
Jinxuan Li et al. Mediating Effect of Tobacco Dependence on the Association Between Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Case-Control Study. JMIR Public Health Surveill. 2024 Feb 22:10:e53170. ;

2024-02-28

What blood pressure after endovascular thrombectomy?

Cardiology and Vascular Medicine

Endovascular thrombectomy is the standard treatment for acute ischemic stroke, but blood pressure targets after thrombectomy remain debated within the medical community. In this study, researchers evaluated the impact of different systolic blood pressure targets on functional outcomes, mortality and complications in patients with acute ischemic stroke. The researchers selected 4 randomized clinical trials, including 1,571 patients, for their analysis. Lower rates of functional independence were observed with the lowest blood pressure targets. No significant differences were observed in 90-day mortality, risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage or hypotension.

Source(s) :
Sherief Ghozy et al. Intensive vs Conventional Blood Pressure Control After Thrombectomy in Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Thrombectomie. JAMA Netw Open. 2024 Feb 5;7(2):e240179. ;